The clear definition of the problem also unveils the solution.
The solution is determined according to criteria revealing the degree of effect— goal is achieved fully or partially, outcome is true or false.
Systems are difficult to work with, and seeing things for what they are is an essential first step. Horst Rittel in the late 1960s distinguished between “tame” and “wicked” problems. This is not the distinction between easy and hard problems—many tame problems are very hard. But wicked problems, while not evil, are tricky and malicious in ways that tame problems are not. The unexpected consequences we’ve seen have been because systems problems are wicked. We will understand systems better—and why they spawn unexpected consequences—if we understand a little more of the properties of wicked problems and approach them with appropriate respect.
Tame problems can be clearly stated, have a well-defined goal, and stay solved. They work…
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