Much of the research I have read on this topic (and I have exhausted myself doing so as I have two children who play video games and one of them is male) suggests no “direct” cause only correlations – in other words it is complicated, and the propensity for violence cannot be blamed on any one factor just like listening to heavy metal music, or reading comic books does not “make” you a sadist however if you already are, you are likely to enjoy the masculine and violent themes of much of that media and the same goes for games like Grand Theft Auto or Doom.
So producers wash their hands of the issue saying they are just catering to the consumers. The problem is that culture and media are so imbricated that there is no pinpointing of ONE source of messaging – it all works together to send hegemonic messaging to citizens that women want manly men, and you are supposed to want a woman, therefore you must be a manly man, and to do that you must be tough, and then there are various interpretations of what that means.
Social and evolutionary psychology studies suggest that the drive to procreate, and to survive underlies all this, then of course there are the factors that affect your psyche before you are seven. By then the messaging from your family, your community, your society and your culture are well embedded in your brain, before you have the capacity to think critically about it. As youth or adults we can laugh at some of these themes and assess them for the ridiculous fantasies that they are, but as children we cannot and if this is the main messaging that we are sending to our children, then we cannot be surprised that these concepts are so deeply engrained in our culture.
Anthropologists and psychologists will also argue that what was appropriate for the survival of aggressive nomadic sheep herder tribes (like the Britons and Celts – who many White Canadians are descended from as opposed to more peacefully-oriented agricultural societies) are not always the same skills we need to navigate contemporary society…so there is our ancient, inherited knowledge and belief systems, along with our individual drives, our cultural values, media messaging, family, community and school dysfunctions (that likely have included violence on some level), mentors or role models, hormone levels of testosterone and personal goals, abilities and resources that all factor into whether or not a man, or a woman for that matter, is likely to be more or less violent and aggressive.
My point is – that humans have the unique capacity to over-ride their lizard brain urges with frontal-lobe critical thinking, which is what makes more so-called civilized, chivalry and gentlemanly conduct possible, but it is slower and takes more effort, and is sometimes impeded by chemicals (drugs, alcohol, etc) or different physiological/psychological abilities. So there is no one answer to this issue.
Personally, I limited outside messaging (TV, Internet, Magazines and newspapers) with the youngest members in our household and when it was allowed, it was never restricted, but always mediated and deconstructed by older family members that usually resulted in interesting discussions. I think this is the key because I don’t believe in censorship or “molly-coddling” children – they need to learn about the world and know the ugly and the beautiful parts of it, so they can deal with it. Therefore, I think that training children to think critically is more important for personal empowerment and the future of humankind than blaming media.
nb: My son and daughter are now in university, seemingly well-adjusted and generally doing well in life. Although they spent a few early years annoyed with me for the differences in our household when compared to that of their friends – by middle school they were more appreciative and could quickly recognise biast messaging.
…what can happen when flesh and blood human beings become subordinated to, and indeed absorbed into, the realm of virtual commodities.
– John Sanbonmatsu (note #6, 435)
News stories in Korea of a young couple neglecting their baby in favour of 12-hour cyber cafe sessions playing Prius Online & Second Life that resulted in her death; also in Korea a young man keeling over dead of a heart attack after a marathon 50-hr session playing Starcraft have led to much discussion regarding internet addiction; in China a young man dies after 15-days of gamming; in Taiwan a teenager dies after 40-hrs of playing Diablo III; a young man in Thailand was found dead at his home in front of his computer video game; a young man in the UK dies after a long gamming session on his X-Box; in the USA even a fit and healthy young man died while ‘jogging’ with his Nintendo Wii game (Sudden Adult Death Syndrome) and so on…
But it is not just gaming online that is the problem, people stay connected to look at/produce pornography, access news/information, engage in cyber sex or gamble as well. The mental-health community is apparently divided over whether an Internet addiction disorder (IAD) actually exists (despite stories like the ones above featuring in the news for the past three decades) but researchers in UK believe there is a link between depression and internet addiction. The American Psychiatric Association did add “Internet use gaming disorder” in this years revised version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (May) but only as a topic bearing ‘further research”. Some studies have found that 95% of citizens under 29 spend a significant amount of time online and that up to 20% of the population in the USA may have an internet addiction. China, Germany and Korea have recognised IAD since 2004 however and have done more research that has lead to some innovative treatments such as horse-back riding and boot camps as well as some not so innovative – like electric shock therapy (now discontinued).
For more on this:
- The Centre for Internet Addiction Recovery (http://www.netaddiction.com)
- Virtual-Addiction (http://www.virtual-addiction.com/)
- The reSTART Internet addiction recovery Program (http://www.netaddictionrecovery.com/)
- Illinois Institute for Addiction Recovery (http://www.addictionrecov.org)
- Daily Strength (http://www.dailystrength.org/c/Internet-Addiction/support-group)
- Computer Addiction Services (http://www.computeraddiction.com)
- Psych Central (http://psychcentral.com/netaddiction/)
Kevin Schut suggests that games like Civilization might be useful in teaching history with the understanding of its hegemonic framing that involves misogynistic, chivalrous and violent masculinity, solipsism with capitalistic solipsism and technocratic tendencies – but I would argue that Civilization is far too ethnocentric and essentialist to be useful as an educational aid. I would also argue that it is difficult to avoid the hegemonic framing – as seen in World of Warcraft (WoW) and Second Life (SL) where it has been seen that users have more agency, but end up reinforcing and even contributing to their own marginalization.
Experts in virtual spaces such as Sherry Turkle believe that the role/s that identity play/s in worlds like multi-user dimensions or domains (MUDs), MUD object oriented (MOOs), and other virtual spaces such as Second Life (SL) are complicated. Turkle asserts that the “anonymity of MUDs . . . provides ample room for individuals to express unexplored parts of themselves” (xii). These spaces have great potential for dynamic identity exploration, and self-expression without the risks of condemnation, rejection or isolation that could result in real life.
Michael Rymaszewski et al. plainly state that SL is a place for living out fantasies, to be someone else or to work out who you are (301).
In this way many people can play the game with an avatar of a different skin colour, or represent a different gender or class to experiment in a virtual life in a way that is not possible in reality. I think putting these three key ideas together – software could be developed that has the freedom of Second Life with an open-source history-content focus, like Civilization but with input from different regions of the world, from different genders, classes and races. Within this framework students could create time traveller avatars to visit different time periods, learn about the history of different regions. There could be a contemporary period included where student could ‘virtual travel’ to different parts the world and have their text automatically translated to have a peek into a day in the life of someone of a different race, class or gender in a different geographical location. Continue reading